Sunday, January 31, 2016

February 2016

The new year progresses apace. Shakespeare is all about us, as always. Preparations are being made round the world to commemorate the 400th anniversary of Shakespeare’s death. Keep an eye out on this blog in April. For those of you in the Stockholm area things will be happening. A hint: The English Bookshop, SEST (Stockholm English Speaking Theatre)…
Meanwhile, Hal and I are in the Henry VI plays. I’ve decided to wait until we’ve read all three before writing an analysis of Henry’s long life. We only have the BBC box version of the plays to watch so it won’t take so long.  I wish The Hollow Crown series would hurry up and release their Henry VI! I see that Tom Sturridge will be playing Henry and Sophie Okenedo will play Margaret. Should be very interesting indeed. Alas, not this time.

Now the February report:

Shakespeare Calling – the book
Available on
or Adlibris, CDON or Bibliotekstjänsten
Please help promote the book by liking and sharing it on Facebook, Twitter, Amazon, Bokus…. And please encourage your local book shops and libraries to buy it!
Once again, thank you all for visiting the blog throughout the years and for supporting this project.

From Davis and Frankforter’s The Shakespeare Name Dictionary:
  • William was for centuries after the Norman conquest the most common English name though by Shakespeare’s day it was in second place after John. The name is used in Henry IV Part 2 and As You Like It, in very small parts. This item was included in the January report but interestingly, since then it has been reported that William was the most popular name for baby boys in 2015 in Sweden.
  • Windsor is about 20 miles west of London. It’s been there a long time. William the Conqueror built the castle, or at least fortified it. Legend has it that King Arthur and his knights met there. In Shakespeare’s day the Tudors expanded the castle. Windsor is mentioned in the Henry plays and of course The Merry Wives of. 

Shakespeare sightings:
  • In the novel Our Souls at Night by Kent Haruf Louis tells Addy that he had wanted to be a poet when he was young and memorized some of Shakespeare’s sonnets.
  • On Facebook the group ‘The Front against racism and growing fascism’  had a post about the sharpened border controls in Denmark under the heading ‘Någonting är ruttet i den danska staten’ (something is rotten in the state of Denmark). Sadly not only in Denmark…
  • In the novel Magonia by Maria Dahvana Headley cheeky young Aza, who is dying of an unexplained condition but refuses to be sentimental about it, tells her English teacher that she was thinking about The Tempest because of the drowning twins. Her teacher points out that that was Twelfth Night which she finds a bit embarrassing. Later her friend Jason points out, ‘There are more things in heaven and earth, Horatio,’ and she reminds him that she’s not Horatio and her hallucinations are due to her medicine. He replies, ‘Hamlet is all about hallucinations and meltdowns and early death.’
  • In the novel The Cleaner of Chartres by Salley Vickers an aging priest and nun, who had been childhood sweethearts, ran off and eloped, like Romeo and Juliet. Later, Abbé Paul reflects, ‘Words, words, words, as the afflicted young prince said, what were they worth?’
  • There was a big review in Dagens Nyheter of the King Lear production at the Uppsala Municipal Theatre. Flat, empty, far-fetched ideas and zero instruction, the Fool has evidently taken a Sabbatical, failure, clichés, so near a catastrophe it’s possible to be. Ouch.
  • Swedish TVs Kulturnyheter was a bit kinder. Marie Göranzon, playing the title role of Lear was said to be good but the symbols used throughout the play meant…what? The critic’s reaction was generally tepid.
  • In the novel Like by Ali Smith Amy’s daughter had played Ophelia well and Ash’s father told her he had done a lot of reading, including Shakespeare, on the ship during the Second World War.
  • In the film Whatever Happened to Baby Jane? Edward tells Baby Jane that his father was a serious Shakespearean actor.
  • Dagens Nyheter had a review of the new film Macbeth and seemed to agree with me but gave it a higher rating (see below).
  • The Royal Dramatic Theatre was going to perform Hamlet but the whole project has been cancelled at the last minute because of the illness of the director Jenny Andreasson.
  • In Love Actually, watched recently in memory of Alan Rickman, Hugh Grant’s charming Prime Minister stands up to the creepy US President Billy Bob Thornton by pointing out that Britain is ‘a small country but a great one, the country of Shakespeare, the Beatles, Harry Potter and David Beckham’s right foot.’ 
  • Dagens Nyheter reports that there will be several new translations into Swedish of Shakespeare plays.
  • The Heart Goes First, Margaret Atwood’s latest novel, is a bit obsessed with sex and a group of gay men are going to do an all-male erotic production of A Midsummer Night’s Scream. The whole novel is a parody of sorts. 

Further since last time:
  • Seen at the cinema with Hal: Macbeth with Michael Fassbender and Marion Cotillard. A disappointment! See my review
  • Read aloud with Hal: Henry VI Part One.
  • Seen with Hal: BBC’s version of Henry VI Part One.
  • Started reading aloud with Hal: Henry VI Part Two. 

Posted this month
  • This report

Monday, January 4, 2016

January 2016

Happy New Year! I hope your holidays have been good and the new year has opened well.
In spite of the turbulence in the world and the rise of forces that go against equality, humanism and solidarity – much of what we see in Shakespeare’s plays – there is reason for optimism. Shakespeare would no doubt be puzzled by our world but were he given time to study it he would, I think, see that his plays have given us much to feel encouraged and carry on the growing grass root movements to defend democracy, equality, the environment and humanism. Remember – ‘Our remedies oft in ourselves do lie, / Which we ascribe to Heaven,’ (All's Well That Ends Well) and ‘It is not in the stars to hold our destiny but in ourselves.’ (Julius Caesar).

Shakespeare Calling – the book
Available on
or Adlibris, CDON or Bibliotekstjänsten
Please help promote the book by liking and sharing it on Facebook, Twitter, Amazon, Bokus…. And please encourage your local book shops and libraries to buy it!
Once again, thank you all for visiting the blog throughout the years and for supporting this project.

From Davis and Frankforter’s The Shakespeare Name Dictionary:
  • Westminster, in what we today consider the centre of London, is and always has been an entity separate from the city itself. The abbey was first built in the 11th century.  D&F tell us that the towers didn’t exist in Shakespeare’s day. Westminster is mentioned in Henry VI Part 2 and the Abbey in Richard III and Henry IV Part 2.
  • William was for centuries after the Norman conquest the most common English name though by Shakespeare’s day it was in second place after John. The name is used in Henry IV Part 2 and As You Like It, in very small parts. 

Shakespeare sightings:
  • In the book Tusen år i Europa band 1 1000-1300 (A Thousand Years in Europe, Volume 1:1000-1300) by Kim Bismark and Brian Patrick Shakespeare The Merchant of Venice is mentioned in connection with the chapter about Jews in the society.
  • In Elizabeth Gaskell’s novel North and South Chapter XXVII is headed by ‘For never anything can be amiss / When simpleness and duty tender it’ (Midsummer Night’s Dream). Later Margaret and Mr Bell compare themselves to the contemplative Hamlet, though Mr Bell points out, ‘But as my mother has not murdered my father, and afterwards married my uncle, I shouldn’t know what to think about…’
  • On The X Files, season 4, the quote from Henry IV Part One Act 5 Scene 1 is used at the beginning of the episode: ‘For nothing can seem foul to those that win.’
  • On The Last Tango in Halifax, on Kate and Caroline’s wedding day, Caroline jokes that her poem to Kate will be ‘Shall I compare thee to my Jeep Cherokee?’
  • In The Perks of Being a Wallflower the English teacher asks the class which novelist had invented the paperback, the serial novel and the expression ‘cliff-hanger’. One of the students (who in the credits was called ‘the Shakespeare girl’) guessed Shakespeare and the kind teacher says, ‘Good guess but Shakespeare wasn’t a novelist.’ The answer (which the main character and I knew) is Dickens. A few minutes later the teacher said, ‘If we’d gone to a Shakespeare play in his time it would have cost us 4 pennies.’ 
  • In the novel Among Others by Jo Walton fifteen-year-old Morwenna reports in her diary that her English class will be reading The Tempest and they will be seeing the play on a school trip. She’s happy because she has never seen The Tempest, she’s seen Romeo and Juliet and A Midsummer Night’s Dream. Her friend hates Shakespeare after seeing The Winter’s Tale and Richard II. Morwenna thinks the company must be awful ‘because Richard II at least should be terrific acted. “Sit upon the ground and tell sad stories of the death of kings”.’ Her reaction to The Tempest: It was all wrong to cast Prospero as a woman, she liked Ariel and Caliban. Morwenna herself can do magic and knows fairies and thinks Shakespeare must have too, about which she has quite an interesting discussion in her diary. In the end she is rescued from danger by spears turning into tress – ‘Burnham Wood coming to Dunsinane’ – and on the last page she promises to keep reading and to use her magic well: ‘I’ll never drown my books or break my staff.’
  • On The Third Rock from the Sun Harry defends aliens from being portrayed as evil: ‘If you prick an alien do we not say “Ow”?’
  • Also on The Third Rock from the Sun Tommy asks Dick to direct the school production of Romeo and Juliet so that he can get the part of Romeo and do heavy make-out scenes with his girlfriend.  Dick watches a version of Hamlet and is inspired by ‘this Laurence Oliver’ (sic). He also explains to the frustrated cast that Romeo and Juliet is Shakespeare and has nothing to do with a horny teenager and his girlfriend.
  • In Stephen Fry’s film Bright Young Things James McAvoy’s character, a journalist, reports to his scandal sheet editor that Emily Mortimer’s character was heard to have misquoted Lady Macbeth at a party.
  • In Vera Brittain’s memoirs Testament of Youth she remembers her earliest school as leaving little scope for reading Shakespeare. She must have read him somewhere however since a few more references are made throughout the book. 

Further since last time:

Posted this month
  • This report
  • ‘A pot of ale and safety’ in Henry V

PS For some reason this blog spot does strange things with the layout, changing the settings and sizes. There seems to be nothing I can do about it. Sorry.

'A pot of ale and safety' in Henry V

‘A pot of ale and safety’

The Life of Henry V

     ‘We few, we happy few, we band of brothers’ – what a glorious line. And Henry is, if nothing else, glorious in war. ‘Once more unto the breach, dear friends.’ Oh, he stirs them into patriotic action and against all odds this ragamuffin English army defeats the grand nobles of France. It’s history. It happened. It’s happened in other places, other wars.
     For what? Who cares if England or France had the crown of England or France but for a few macho aristocrats?
     The play can be done as a farce, as did the Globe. It can be done as war propaganda, as did Olivier. It can be done as a grim portrayal of war, with its valour, heroism and brutal pointless violence. As in the Hollow Crown and Branagh versions.
     It doesn’t demand a very sharp eye to discern the stark thread of reality throughout the play’s tapestry of patriotism and piety. Not everyone is all fired up to conquer the French, using flimsy historical hereditary labyrinths as an excuse.
     As England heads for war Pistol, Bardolph, Nym, Mistress Quickly and the boy are more concerned with their own quarrels and with the death of Falstaff. ‘The king,’ Mistress Quickly mourns, ‘has killed his heart’ (Act 2.2). True. As we saw in Henry IV Part Two, the king did not start out heroically.
     We see none of Henry’s farewells as he leaves for France, nor any of his lords as they leave their families, but we see Mistress Quickly and her new husband Pistol part, and Bardolph, Nym and the boy as they leave their friend Nell behind. It can and should be played as a sorrowful scene as it is in the Hollow Crown and Branagh versions. It is not a happy or glorious parting, this going to war.
     Ah. Once more unto the breach, dear friends. An apt quote when we have a difficult task in front of us. For Harry and his soldiers, it likely means injury and death. But off they go. Except for the clear-sighted Nym, encouraged by Bardolph:

Pray thee, corporal, stay; the knocks are too hot, and for mine own part, I have not a case of lives (Act 3.2)

     Pistol tries to be philosophical:

Knocks go and come, God’s vassals drop and die
And sword and shield,
In bloody field,
Doth win immortal fame (Act 3.2)

     To which the boy replies, in one of Shakespeare’s most poignant lines:

Would I were in an ale-house in London: I would give all my fame for a pot of ale and safety (Act 3.2).

He then vows to leave them, as ‘their villainy goes against my weak stomach’ (Act 3.2).
     The boy’s longing to be in Eastcheap and quit his villainous friends is paralleled later as King Henry wanders incognito amongst his foot soldiers the night before battle. Before Harry arrives Bates has said to Williams, ‘We have no great cause to desire the approach of day’ (act 4.1). Indeed, they don’t - it is not their war. The Chorus has told us that, ‘Now all the youth of England are on fire’ (Act 2), a phenomenon all too familiar in our own day. Bates and Williams were perhaps among the fired up youth but the realities of war have jarred them into their senses. When Harry comes and tries to convince them that the king is just a man, like others, Bates and Williams are not impressed. Bates says, perhaps bitterly,

…as cold a night as ‘tis, he could wish himself in Thames up to the neck; and so I would he were, and I by him, at all adventures, so we were quit here (Act 4.1).

When Harry assures him that the king would not wish to be anywhere but right there Bates retorts:

Then I would he were alone; so should he be sure to be ransomed, and a many poor men’s lives saved (Act 4.1).

     If Harry isn’t shaken by this, he should be. But he is the king and convinced that any soldier ‘could not die anywhere so contented as in the King’s company; his cause being just and his quarrel honourable’ (Act 4.1)
     How many times have the leaders of invading armies said that throughout the centuries?
     Williams: ‘That’s more than we know’ (Act 4.1).
     What a simple line. What a short sentence. And it turns the patriotic play upside down.
     Harry must assume his cause is just. He has enough conscience not to start a war otherwise but the doubt of these two soldiers in the justness of that cause also ‘expose the cracks in the king’s armour’ (intro RSC edition, p. 1028, about another scene but appropriate here as well). That doubt is succinctly expressed by Williams:

…if the cause be not good, the king himself hath a heavy reckoning to make, when all those legs and arms and heads, chopped off in a battle, shall join together at the latter day and cry all, ‘We died at such a place’ – some swearing, some crying for a surgeon, some upon their wives left poor behind them, some upon the debts they owe, some upon their children rawly left. I am afeard there are few die well that die in a battle, for how can they charitably dispose of anything, when blood is their argument? Now, if these men do not die well, it will be a black matter for the king that led them to it – who to disobey were against all proportion of subjection (Act 4.1, my italics).

     There are few die well who die in a battle…  If these men do not die well it will be a black matter for the king.
     The doubt has been raised and cannot be unraised. The blame has been brought to the king’s door and no pious prayers to God or St. Crispin’s band of brothers can chase it away.
     Harry has described the brutalities of war wrought upon families outside the gates of Harfleur but that speech was a threat, an expression of power.  Williams describes them from the soldier’s point of view, the soldier who does not die well in a battle, who leaves behind a poor wife and children.
     History is written by the winners. Harry wins his battle, justly caused or not.  He goes down in history as a heroic tragic king. Everything he gained through inheritance and battle and extortion his successors lose through incompetence.
            And the soldiers?  Bardolph, hanged. The boy, presumably killed. Pistol, returned to England to a dead wife. Williams, pardoned and enriched by a magnanimous King Harry, but not necessarily convinced that Harry’s war was a just one. No doubt he returned to England, plagued as soldiers are by memories of war.
     Patriotism and piety. The play is full of them. What stays with me are two lines:
     ‘I would give all my fame for a pot of ale and safety.’
     And: ‘there are few die well that die in battle.’
     Could this be Shakespeare’s best play? Not because of the patriotism and piety but because the boy, Williams and the others reveal how cracked and faulty patriotism and piety are?

Works cited:
  • William Shakespeare, the Complete Works, the RSC edition, 2007. Edited by Jonathan Bate and Eric Rasmussen
  • Introduction. William Shakespeare, the Complete Works, the RSC edition, 2007. Edited by Jonathan Bate and Eric Rasmussen

Films seen:
  • The Globe, 2012. Director: Dominic Dromgoole. Cast: King Henry – Jamie Parker; Chorus – Brid Brennan; Mistress Quickly/ Alice – Lisa Stevenson; Pistol – Sam Cox; Nym – David Hargreaves; Boy/ Princess Katherine - Olivia Ross; Bardolph – Paul Rider; Bates – Beruce Khan; Williams – Chris Starkie
    • I love the Globe but this is a real disappointment. It’s mostly slapstick and the few moments of depth disappear in the cheap laughs. Starkie is good as Williams, though.
  • The Hollow Crown – Henry V.  Director: Thea Sharrock. Cast: King Henry – Tom Hiddleston; Chorus – John Hurt; Mistress Quickly – Julie Walters; Pistol – Paul Ritter; Nym – Tom Brooke; Boy – George Sargeant; Bardolph  - Tom Georgeson; Bates – John Dalgliesh; Williams – Gwylim Lee
  • Henry V, 1989. Director: Kenneth Branagh. Cast: King Henry – Kenneth Branagh; Chorus – Derek Jacobi; Mistress Quickly – Judi Dench; Pistol – Robert Stephens; Nym – Geoffrey Hutchings; Boy – Christian Bale; Bardolph - Richard Briers; Bates – Shaun Prendergast; Williams – Michael Williams

Seen on stage: No

Monday, December 7, 2015

December 2015

The Henrys continue and we’ve finished reading Henry V but still have two films to watch. Surprisingly, I’m not getting the Henrys mixed up in my head, though I go from IV to V several times a day. And soon the VI’s will start.
Slowly, slowing information about Shakespeare Calling – the book is spreading. The British Shakespeare Association is promoting it as is the Swedish Shakespeare Society. Thank you both for that! (see further under ‘Further…’ below). Below you will find the links for on-line purchase. Please encourage your local book shops and libraries to buy it! And once again, thank you all for visiting the blog throughout the years and for supporting this project.

Shakespeare Calling – the book

For those of you in the UK, Sweden and the rest of Europe:
or Adlibris, CDON or Bibliotekstjänsten

For those of you in the rest of the world and/or those who usually shop at Now also available as a Kindle book.

From Davis and Frankforter’s The Shakespeare Name Dictionary:
  • Wales is such a fascinating place. We really must go there one day. Shakespeare mentions it a lot of course, in the history plays and Cymbeline. It has a long and interesting history and it was more often than not in conflict with England but in the 1470’s a Welshman by the name of Tudor ascended the throne and by Acts of Parliament in 1536 and 1542 the two were united. Sort of.
  • Wednesday is a good old day, named for the Norse god Odin. It’s mentioned in The Comedy of Errors, Romeo and Juliet, Richard II, The Merchant of Venice, Henry IV Parts One and Two, Coriolanus, Othello, and The Winter’s Tale.

Shakespeare sightings:
  • In The Whispering City by Sara Moliner (translated from the Spanish Don des lenguas) linguist Beatriz points out to her cousin Ana that literature is filled with conflicts over inheritance and mentions Lear as an example.
  • In Jeanette Winterson’s novel The Daylight Gate, Shakespeare’s plays are not only mentioned but he is a character himself:
    • Magistrate Roger Nowell and independent woman of means Alice Nutter discuss having seen The Tempest, a play suspiciously about ‘magick’ in London. It will soon be performed in their part of the world, Lancashire.
    • Prosecuting clerk Potts calls Shakespeare ‘an upstart crow’ (hm, a stolen quote from one of Shakepseare’s playwright rivals) and a traitor and is very suspicious of the play Macbeth.
    • Later Shakespeare discusses Catholicism with Nutter and argues with Potts Nowell about black masses and magic and sympathy with King James
    • Potts compares his own writing of trial reports with the inferior writing of Shakespeare.
  • In Nation by Terry Pratchett
    • one of the leaders of the island Nation makes a speech before a battle with the invading Raiders worthy of ‘the Agincourt speech from Henry the Fifth. Or at least what it might have been if Shakespeare had been small and dark and wore a little loincloth instead of trousers, or tights in Shakespeare’s case.’
    • on the last page one of the descendants of Mau, one of the main characters, reflects: ‘What a piece of work is Man…’
  • In the excellent book The Year 1000 what life was like at the turn of the first millennium by Robert Lacey and Danny Danziner
    • We are reminded that Juliet’s birthday is on ‘Lammas eve’, one of the oldest English country festivals. It has nothing to do with lambs or religion but celebrates ‘hlafmaesse, loaf-mass, the day when the hungry gap ended and the first loaf could be made from the new harvest.’
    • We are also reminded that Macbeth was a historical person who was better at keeping the Vikings out than his southern colleague Ethelred. The three sisters’ ‘skin of frog’ has its basis in the fact that this to us unpleasant ingredient has in fact psychedelic qualities – ‘medieval morphine’ as the authors put it.
  • In the first season of The Third Rock from the Sun the subject of death comes up and Harry says: To die, to sleep, / To sleep, perchance to Dream; aye, there's the rub, For in that sleep of death, what dreams may come, / When we have shuffled off this mortal coil, / Must give us pause. Dick says: ‘What’s that from?’ Harry answers, ‘Oh, some Mel Gibson film.’  This might be the best exchange of the whole series…
  • Seen in the tube station: an advert of Hamlet, premiering at the Royal Dramatic Theatre in January. Maybe we’ll make it to this one?
  • In Arthur C. Clarke’s very silly but almost endearing novel about the colonisation of Mars, The Sands of Mars, the crew watch an old film of Hamlet and the main character Gibson compares himself to Falstaff for becoming giddy upon going out into the green fields (I told you it was silly – Mars? Green fields? It seems to have kangaroo-like natives too…so, endearing, in its way).
  • On Swedish TVs Kulturnyheter there was an item about invented languages and it started with a clip of ‘To be or not to be’ in Klingon.
  • The second season in The Last Tango in Halifax mentions Shakespeare several times:
    • Caroline’s school is doing King Lear and she suggests that the new baby be called Cordelia. Or maybe Goneril or Regan, though that’s a joke. Later she says the play was good and she’s proud of them.
    • When Judith accuses John of stealing her story he says, ‘It’s my family. It’s my story, you don’t even know them.’ And Judith answers, ‘Shakespeare didn’t know Richard the Third but that didn’t stop him writing a shitty play about him!’
  • Celia and Alan are playing Trivial Pursuit and Celia is disgruntled over getting a category she doesn’t like. Before Alan even reads the question she answers, ‘Sherlock Holmes, the Beatles or Shakespeare!’
  • In My Fair Lady Professor Higgins reminds Eliza Doolittle: ‘Remember, your language is the language of Shakespeare.’
  • In Deborah Moggach’s Something to Hide Petra suggests that she and Jeremy go to see the King Lear playing just down the road but they don’t bother. Later Petra gazes at the pillow upon which Jeremy’s head had so recently rested and thinks, ‘…oh happy horse, to bear the wright of Antony…’  
  • In Mark Haddon’s The Red House there is some Shakespeare:
    • Melissa is directing A Midsummer Night’s Dream at school. This allowed her to smoke. Um….? And the logic here is…?
    • Shakespeare, the pyramids, human beings are in Daisy’s list of what’s astonishing
    • In another long and strange list of obscure things by someone – I haven’t figured out who, it’s quite a confusing book, but very good – Cymbeline is mentioned. I supposed it could be considered obscure. 

Further since last time:
  • Saw:  the excellent Macbeth with the Stockholm English Speaking Theatre in Old Town in Stockholm. I wrote on Facebook (and it will be coming in Swedish in the Swedish Shakespeare Society’s magazine any day now):
    • With a cast of three and a crowded 14th century cellar in Stockholm’s Old Town, Macbeth is brought to very close-up life. The three sisters do not appear physically but their eerie voices (one of them remarkably like Moaning Myrtle in the Harry Potter films) are very strong. Sound effects and lighting create all the imagination we need for the abbreviated story, one of the spectators in the front row was given the chance to play Banquo’s son Fleance by holding Banquo’s sword and lantern. The play was performed both in the tiny bar and in the almost-as-tiny theatre. Very atmospheric but sorry – not for wheelchairs, barely for crutches.The cast – Keith Foster as Macbeth, Kristina Leon as Lady Macbeth and the versatile and hard-working Richard Asker as Banquo, Macduff and Seyton – are brilliant. To mention a few examples of many: The domestic scenes with husband and wife – other than having a murder on their minds, excellently ordinary. Lady Macbeth’s ‘out damned spot’ monolog, Macduff’s ‘all dead?’ monolog and Macbeth’s ‘tomorrow and tomorrow and tomorrow’ monolog with his wife’s dead body in his arms - – all heart-breaking. 
  • Finished reading aloud with Hal: Henry V
  • Watched: the Globe version of Henry V, which sadly was a disappointment. Read more next time at the end of the text on the play.
  • Ordered: Making Shakespeare: from Stage to Page by Tiffany Stern
  • Shakespeare Calling – the book now is now being promoted by:
  • Shakespeare Calling – the book is now being promoted by: Swedes, you should definitely join this society! 

Posted this month
  • This report
  • ‘Mo’ Henry Blues’ in Henry IV Part Two

Mo' Henry Blues in Henry IV Part Two

Mo’ Henry Blues


Henry IV Part Two

     Henry plays an even smaller role in this, his second (third if you count Richard II) play. He doesn’t even enter the stage until Act III and then he is in his nightgown. Hardly kingly.
     He is not a happy king. He suffers, as many of Shakespeare’s kings do, from insomnia, while imagining that his subjects are happily snoozing away:

How many thousand of my poorest subjects
Are at this hour asleep? O sleep, O gentle sleep,
Nature’s soft nurse, how have I frighted thee,
That thou no more wilt weigh my eyelids down
And steep my senses into forgetfulness? (Act 3.1)

     He goes on for twenty more eloquent lines to end with that most quoted lament amongst the world’s royalty: ‘Uneasy lies the head that wears the crown.’
     Not only is he tired, he is ill. He is dying. He fears his kingdom is dying. To Warwick:

Then you perceive the body of our kingdom
How foul it is, what rank diseases grow
And with what danger, near the heart of it? (Act 3.1)

     He is still haunted by the past, by Richard, the man upon whose throne he now sits, the man whose crown sits uneasy on his head. He broods, and remembers, and fears Richard’s prophesy:

‘The time shall come,’ thus did he follow it,
‘The time will come that foul sin, gathering head,
Shall break into corruption.’ So went on,
Foretelling this same time’ condition
And the division of our amity. (Act 3.1)

     And again, still, he longs for redemption:

And were these inward wars once out of hand,
We would, dear lords, unto the Holy Land. (Act 3.1)

     Several scenes go by before we see the king again and then he is fretting about Prince Harry, who in spite of his princely heroism at the end of Part One, is still behaving in a most unprincely manner with his friends in Eastcheap. King Henry fears for his kingdom when he himself is no longer amongst the living:

The blood weeps from my heart when I do shape
In forms imaginary th’ unguided days
And rotten times that you shall look upon
When I am sleeping with my ancestors.
For when his headstrong riot hath no curb,
When raged and hot blood are his counsellors,
When means and lavish manners meet together,
O, with what wings shall his affections fly
Towards fronting peril and opposed decay! (Act 4.2)

     Warwick assures him the prince is just faking it, studying ‘his companions / Like a strange tongue, wherein, to gain the language’ (Act 4.2).  But Henry is too ill to take comfort and when given the news of the rebels’ capitulation he cries

Will fortune never come with both hands full,
…She either gives stomach and no food –
Such are the poor, in health – or else a feast
And takes away the stomach – such are the rich….
… I should rejoice now at this happy news,
And now my sight fails, and my brain is giddy. (Act 4.2)

     The king collapses and is put to bed. Thereupon follows the famous scene in which Prince Harry puts on his father’s crown. When the king awakens and sees this, his heart is broken.

I stay too long by thee, I weary thee.
… O foolish youth!
Thou seek’st the greatness that will o’erwhelm thee….
Thou hast stolen that which after some few hours
Were thine without offense…
… thou lovedst me not,
And thou wilt have me die assured of it….
What? Canst thou not forbear me half an hour?
Then get thee gone and dig my grave thyself…
Henry the Fifth is crowned…
O my poor kingdom, sick with civil blows!
When that with my care could not withhold thy riots,
What wilt thou do when riot is thy care? (Act 4.2)

     Prince Harry’s long monolog of repentance and explanation has never convinced me but King Henry allows himself to believe his son and they are reunited.
     Henry wishes Harry a more secure reign than he has had and laments of the crown Harry covets: ‘I myself know well / How troublesome it sat upon my head’ (Act 4.2).
     Thus Henry IV dies.
     Some scholars have described Henry as cold and unfeeling, grasping and power-hungry. Maybe because characters in the play itself do. I don’t see him that way.  I see him as a man who inexplicably finds himself in a situation not entirely of his own choosing. Yes, he could have refused the crown in Richard II but Richard essentially forced him to take it. Conscientious man that he is, Henry Bullingbrook does the best he can. Throughout both plays he struggles. Adrian Poole writes, ‘The king is consumed with care about everything over which he is supposed to rule – his realm, his son, himself’ (Introduction, Penguin edition, p. xxxii).
     He succeeds in the end to rule over a somewhat united kingdom. His son? As we know, but Henry doesn’t, Prince Harry becomes the heroic Henry V. In spite of their reconciliation Henry cannot fully believe that his wayward son is reformed and will be able to rule wisely. He is aware to the end of ‘the nightmare possibility that the Prince will not after all be able to redeem the time or his promise, and that under Harry Harry, England will get stuck in a murderous and licentious chaos from which there is no escape’ (Poole, p. xxvii).
     In spite of these fears the king embraces his son. Much has been made of Lear’s tragic role as a father. I find Henry’s role as a father much more heart-rendering. Lear was an awful father. Henry tries to be a good father and is, considering.
     Ruling over himself? Does he ever succeed in that? Not really. His usurpation of the throne from Richard plagues him to the end and almost the last thing he says is, ‘How I came by the crown, O heaven forgive’ (Act 5.1). And the fates laugh at his longing to redeem himself by going on a crusade to the holy land. The prophesy that he will not die but in Jerusalem ironically comes true. The room in which he collapsed is called Jerusalem. Thus

…bear me to that chamber. There I’ll lie.
In that Jerusalem shall Harry die (Act 5.1).

     I would have wished King Henry a happier end. I’ve always liked him. I will miss him.

Works cited:
  • William Shakespeare, the Complete Works, the RSC edition, 2007. Edited by Jonathan Bate and Eric Rasmussen
  • Poole, Adrian. Introduction to the Penguin edition of Henry IV Part Two, 1977. Editor: Stanley Wells

 Films seen:
  • BBC, 1979. Director: David Giles. Cast: Prince Hal – David Gwillim; King Henry – Jon Finch; Falstaff – Anthony Quayle; Hotspur – Tim Pigott-Smith; Mortimer – Robert Morris; Lady Mortimer – Sharon Morgan; Owain Glyndwr – Richard Owens. 
    • This is a well-done production. Jon Finch is very good as Henry, Quayle is a convincing Falstaff and the others are generally very good too.  The only question mark is Gwillim as Hal, probably because I saw Branagh as Henry V first. Gwillim was better the second time (or was it the third) that we watched the play, but for me Hal will always be Branagh.
  • The Globe, 2012. Director: Dominic Dromgoole. Cast: Prince Hal – Jamie Parker; King Henry – Oliver Cotton; Falstaff – Roger Allam; Mistress Quickly – Barbara Marten; Pistol – Sam Crane; Doll Tearsheet – Jade Williams
    • The boisterousness continues. Roger Allam is the star; he continues to be the best Falstaff ever. The characters of Hal and Henry are not given their full potential here. Barbara Marten as Mistress Quickly is fun to watch. Again, as always, the Globe itself is a very strong presence and carries the play all by itself at times.
  • Chimes at Midnight, 1965. Director: Orson Wells. Cast: Prince Hal – Keith Baxter; King Henry – John Gielgud; Falstaff – Orson Welles; Mistress Quickly – Margaret Rutherford; Doll Tearsheet – Jeanne Moreau.
    • Combining both plays as well as Henry V, Orson Welles portrays a tragic Falstaff in this beautiful black and white somewhat low key labour of love. This is the second time we’ve watched this film.  Welles considered it his best but I found it very hard to like the first time and a second watching didn’t improve it though the black and white is strong and the cast, except for the hammy stars Welles and Gielgud, are good.
  • My Own Private Idaho, 1991. Director: Gus van Sant. Cast: (Scott Favor) Prince Hal – Keanu Reeves; (Jack Favor) King Henry – Tom Troupe; (Bob Pigeon) Falstaff – William Richert; Mike Waters - Poins (or somebody) – River Phoenix.
    • Truly a strange movie, this too makes use of both Part One and Part Two. Why Van Sant chose to incorporate a great deal of the plays, often literally word for word, into his story is a mystery to me but somehow it works. Sort of.  I still like it after this, the third or fourth viewing.
  • The Hollow Crown, Henry IV Part II, 2012. Director: Richard Eyre. Cast: Prince Hal – Tom Hiddleston; King Henry – Jeremy Irons; Falstaff – Simon Russell Beale; Mistress Quickly – Julie Walters; Pistol – Paul Ritter; Doll Tearsheet – Maxine Peake.
    • Again Hiddleston and Irons give masterly performances. Even Beale makes one pity Falstaff for being old and pathetic. As often with Shakespeare plays, it gets stronger and pulls together in the end. The ‘I know thee not, old man’ scene is very well done. The hoodlum Hal is now king and the boisterous and self-serving Falstaff is rejected.           
Seen on stage: Yes. Seen at the Roundhouse in London on April 16, 2008, it was the first complete Shakespeare play we had ever seen in English. Had we but known, we could have seen more. The Roundhouse was presenting all of the History Plays, but this was at the beginning of our Shakespeare days, and we didn't have a clue. Still we saw this one. And that was a giant step in the whole process leading to this blog.